EUDC POLITICAL PROGRAM
RATIFIED AT THE SECOND CONGRESS OF EUDC
Political Program Ratified at the Second Organizational Congress of EUDC
Eritrea is a nation located on the Red Sea Coast of the Horn of Africa. It is situated near the Bab-el-Mandeb Strait, which connects the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean. Like all African countries which were under European colonization, Eritrea took its form and shape with current borders during the era of Italian rule.
It has several ethnic groups that express their diverse identities with their respective cultures, languages and histories. Eritrea has an estimated population of five million people. The people of Eritrea practice different religions and traditional beliefs. Its economy is based on agriculture, pastoralism, fishing and cottage industries. The nation has an area of 124,320 km2, and has more than 1,350 km of coastline along the Red Sea which extends from the Sudan in the north to Djibouti in the south. It is a country that has more than 350 small islands and two major ports. It is bordered by the Red Sea on the east, with Djibouti on the southeastern border, with Ethiopia to the south, and with the Sudan to the west.
To win its independence on May 24th, 1991, it had to carry out a protracted and agonizing popular struggle against successive colonial powers, and paid a huge price in terms of human and material losses. Ethiopia, at the time, did not believe in Eritrea’s right to self-determination, therefore Eritrea had no option but to wage a war for freedom and self-determination. Finally, through the combined efforts of the people of Eritrea, the fascist regime of Ethiopia-the “Dergue” was defeated and Eritrea gained its national independence. The year of 1991 was not only a historic year for the revolution as it was national independence was won, but it was also the year that a saw a change in the power structure of Ethiopia; this change was brought about by the Ethiopian
People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). EPRDF strongly believed in the justness of the armed struggle in Eritrea and in Eritrea’s right to self-determination; this stance allowed for a smooth transition from a de facto state of independence—which was won through the liberation struggle in Eritrea—to a de juro independence garnered by the referendum which was conducted in April 1993. The Eritrean people voted overwhelmingly (99.8% of the population) for national independence. The turnout and outcome of the referendum was evidence of the fact that almost all Eritreans supported in the armed struggle and wanted Eritrea to be a sovereign nation. Ultimately, in May 1993, Eritrean independence was officially recognized.
Unfortunately, the independence, that our people paid a huge price to secure, was hijacked by the dictatorial PFDJ regime and thus the democratization process was halted. The PFDJ regime, which is infamous for its totalitarian methods, instituted a political policy that could not and would tolerate a pluralistic system of governance. A popular PFDJ slogan states that “Eritrea cannot accommodate…more than one [political] party”. The regime was founded on this belief from its inception during the struggle for liberation, and continues its tyrannical and exclusionary policies to this day. The stifling of the political pluralism was sped up after independence, as the regime made an official declaration stating that it would be considered “…a serious crime to participate in political activities under the auspices of political parties.” Our people, who have been exhausted by successive foreign rulers, now find themselves in the hands of the totalitarian PFDJ regime. The transition to a democratic system of governance has been thwarted, and the economic recovery and development stunted. Nation-building and Eritrean nationalism has also been jeopardized. Owing to the fact that PFDJ’s policies have no semblance of democratic values, and aim to destroy politics of inclusiveness and Eritrean unity, which is based on mutual trust and respect amongst all of the nationalities, has deteriorated. As a result of
the poor leadership of PFDJ, the last 23 years of independence have been the darkest period of history for our people. The economic destruction and the breakdown of the social fabric, is what motivates its citizens to flee the country in every direction. All of these factors have left Eritrea teetering between existing, as a nation, and complete demise.
A. PFDJ is an Undemocratic Regime Known for Violating the Human Rights and Democratic Rights of its Citizens
This reckless regime has deprived our people from getting involved in all national issues, and they have meted out brutal punishment to whosoever dares to raise their voice. People cannot speak their minds nor have peace. The regime controls every aspect of the people’s lives; there is no room for freedom of speech, for freedom of movement, nor for the right to assemble. It has been viciously detaining dissidents; the few who are brave enough to speak up, either vanish or they are killed for deviating from the party’s line. Since it took power as the provisional government of Eritrea, PFDJ has been at war against its own citizens, veterans, and members of other political organizations. This self-appointed regime has been ruling the country without any regard for the rule of law, and without participatory democratic elections. It has been a dark cloud, so to speak, over the entire region, as it is continuously inciting wars of aggression and invasion, both inside or outside the country. The whole nation has been turned into a huge prison. Meanwhile, human and democratic rights have been violated. The people have been so victimized and terrorized that they live with constant fear for their lives. The cause of all these miseries and gross human rights abuses is the PFDJ regime; it is this same entity which shamefully stated “it is not time for democracy in Eritrea and the people are not yet ready for it!” This statement exemplifies the undemocratic nature of Isaias Afewerki and his regime.
B. PFDJ is Anti-unity and Anti-diversity of the Eritrean people
Eritrea is known for its diverse nationalities, religions, rich cultures, and traditions. As a result of these realities, it requires a conscientious effort to preserve the unity and integrity of these values. Not only should these national characteristics be embraced as shared treasure, we must remain respectful and loyal to the task of strengthening the unity of these diverse groups. Isaias Afewerki and his junta, not only deny the reality of this diversity, but they also consider it a threat to their existence. The regime’s deceitful campaign which focuses on preservation of the territorial integrity of the nation comes at the cost of ethnic unity; it employs cruel, oppressive, and terrorizing measures of intimidation to destroy the pillars of said unity.
PFDJ has repeatedly shown its chauvinistic nature by absolutely denying the existence and identities of Eritrea’s ethnic groups. Isaias Afewerki’s desire to abolish these identities was apparent when he made an official statement declaring: “There are no ethnic groups in Eritrea, only linguistic groups.” To add insult to injury, in 1995, he created new administrative regions, which disregarded the existing boundaries of different ethnic groups. The ethnic groups were scattered here and there as a result of the redrawing of regional borders. During his dictatorial rule, Afewerki has worked to create a new Eritrean identity, by force. In order to prolong his political power, he has killed the strong sense of collective nationalism and national unity which existed. Once the failure of the establishment of a unified nationalism was evident, he began the task of crushing and displacing the people of Eritrea.
The diversity which exists in Eritrea is not a hindrance or a threat to national unity.
The sovereignty of the state of Eritrea is a concept that is inseparable from the sovereignty of its citizens. National sovereignty is also defined by the sovereignty of its nationalities. In theory, the sovereignty of the nationalities is not only guaranteed, by individually assured democratic rights, but also guaranteed by undivided communal democratic rights as well. The future of the Eritrean nationalities should not only include the right to self-determination, but should also guarantee the right to use their own languages, honor their own history, to govern their territories, and to be fairly represented as well as participate in the central government. A strong sense of national unity can be created by ensuring comprehensive democratic rights that are founded on mutual respect and trust among the people. It is by establishing these democratic rights that we can foster a genuine Eritrean nationalism, not by forcing the issue of territorial integrity as PFDJ has done. The regime’s policies have always been a path to the destruction of national unity, never aiming to strengthen it.
Just as cultural diversity is a threat to PFDJ, so too is religion. The character of the regime does not have the ability to see this diversity as a gift and an asset, nor to respect the rights of its citizens, which include freedom of religion and traditional beliefs—whatever they may be. Non-interference of the government in religious matters, and vice-versa is not how PFDJ is used to operating. To extend its grip of power, the regime has continued to imprison, kidnap, and kill members of different religious groups; sometimes people are persecuted on an individual basis and other times they are targeted en masse. To make matters worse, the regime is constantly instigating in an effort to create hate and division between the different religious groups. This anti-religion and anti-unity regime has employed innumerable criminal tactics to destroy the strong sense of Eritrean national unity and eradicate the people’s identity by inciting conflict amongst the different groups.
C. PFDJ Destabilizes the Social and Economic Development of the Nation
The economic policies of PDFJ are not different from its political policies; they have been a means to accumulating all the wealth and resources of the nation and its people. It has no developmental strategy which can engage its citizens, positively, nor does it have even an inkling of transparency or accountability; it is riddled by excessive corruption. It has neither a clear economic policy, nor any officially recognized government budget. If its objective was to build a strong national economy, there would be no better task than the capacity-building of its citizens, especially the young people. PFDJ, however, shattered the future of the young people by inciting unjust wars and invasions against neighboring countries, thereby forcing the youth into indefinite military conscription. In the name of national service, the regime has placed this very productive workforce for open-ended compulsory military service, which many of the Eritrean youth compare to modern-day slavery. This infamous, exploitative forced labor project is called Warsay Yikealo [the Inheritors & the Almighties] describing the [youth and the freedom fighters] It is a lost opportunity in regards to what the youth could have earned in business ventures, agriculture, manufacturing, and this has brought the economic development of the nation to a halt. As a result of the militarization of the country, the economy is in stagnation. Again, the regime bears responsibility for the poverty, illiteracy, and overall underdevelopment in the country. The people of Eritrea are dealing with the lowest level of living standards; they are deprived of basic necessities such as healthcare, access to education, electricity and clean drinking water.
PFDJ regime fears the people, in general, and young people, in particular; it uses harsh methods (e.g. constant harassment and corporal punishment) in a way that hinders their
social development. By denying them access to educational resources, especially science and technology, and violating their human rights, this generation is treated like pawns. For the crime of dissent, countless youth are snatched from their homes and incarcerated in secret prisons that are scattered around the country. Through “national service” training, the regime has been indoctrinating the younger generation of citizens with a new Eritrean identity. Instead of enjoying their lives, getting married, and establishing their own families, they are always engaged in the battles and wars waged by a truly destructive regime.
Despite the fact that women make up half of the population, and they contributed more than their fair share during the struggle for independence, they are not represented accordingly; the PFDJ regime has also exposed them to massive political, economic and social oppression. In short both young people and women have been denied their basic human rights. They have also lost the sense of security in their own country, and—with bleak futures on the horizon—the only option they have is to flee the country in droves. Once they leave Eritrea, the journey is both long and treacherous. On their way out of the country, thousands have fallen into the hands of human traffickers where they face brutal abuse and torture. Meanwhile others have lost their lives in either the desert or the sea.
D. The Foreign Policy of PFDJ is Isolationist
The foreign policy that PFDJ pursues emanates from its anti-social politics, anti-democratic and destructive ideology. The regime has never worked for long term peace and stability with neighboring countries and the rest of the world. It does not have the political capacity to solve differences through peaceful dialogue, in a civilized and peaceful manner. It
engages in conflict and war to advance its agenda. It disseminates toxic ethnic messages that work against peaceful co-existence, brotherhood, and destroy strategic relations. In order to restrict the progress of normal relations, and put an end to mutually beneficial development projects, it closes borders and discourages communication between the people. It funds, trains, and mobilizes terrorist groups to destabilize other countries in the Horn of Africa. The regime conducts media campaigns to create bogus enemies and incite hatred. It has convinced the people of Eritrea that they are surrounded by enemies in the region; PFDJ has also planted seeds of doubt and mistrust as it relates to most Western countries. The cumulative effect of such divisive policies is that the United Nations Security Council has now imposed sanctions against the regime and isolated it from the international community. The country is left without any allies.
Nowadays all the destructive intentions and policies of the PFDJ regime have been exposed, and our people are appalled by its many actions. In the past 23 years, due to the corrupt and hideous administration of the regime, the people have developed their own awareness, and they have reached the realization that PFDJ is their worst enemy. Before independence, our people were devastated by the brutal rule of the Dergue. After independence when the people were supposed to breathe a sigh of relief, they fell into the hands of an even worse variety of home-grown tyranny and oppression. Henceforth the people of Eritrea long for peace, tranquility and stability more than anything else. At this point in time, it is our people’s wish to have a system that uses its energy to live in peace with its citizens and all neighboring countries. It is our people’s understanding that we can only prosper by cooperating with all our neighbors.
Our organization, Eritrean Unity for Democratic Change (EUDC), believes that, based on the above stated goals, the time has come for our people to seek meaningful democratic change. PFDJ, the worst enemy of our people, has to be removed by any means. In its place, we aim to establish a multi-party, federal democratic system that respects the rule of law, international charters and conventions. EUDC is working to lay the groundwork so that the people will regain political power in Eritrea. We will ensure that the rights and values of our people are respected, and that the people will have a say in all vital issues by playing an active and decisive role in the nation. EUDC will work relentlessly to ensure that the ethnic diversity of Eritrea is acknowledged, and that each group’s right to self-determination is respected unconditionally. We strive to build a sense of national unity based on mutual respect and trust. We will also work to ensure the freedom and equality of the different religious beliefs, cultures and languages of our people. Our struggle will continue to ensure long term peace and stability with our neighbors, cooperating with each other for mutual progress and development. To ensure the success of these fundamental objectives, EUDC will implement the following strategies and tactics.
- Save the people and the nation of Eritrea from the risk of collapse and devastation, remove the totalitarian PFDJ regime and its repressive institutions by any means.
- Based on mutual respect and collaboration, we are prepared to work on a minimum program with all political forces working towards democratic change
- That any differences of ideas or conflicts among the political forces should be treated as secondary, and should be solved in a civilized manner with dialogue and discussion.
- After the fall of the totalitarian PFDJ regime, EUDC believes that the group that seizes power should set up a provisional government for a very short period of time. Thereafter, through national conference that includes all political forces, civic societies, religious leaders, community elders, women’s associations, intellectuals and prominent national figures, a transitional government will be established.
- Work earnestly to make the duration, tasks and mandates of the transitional government effective, peaceful and democratic.
- The transitional government will draft the constitution and laws derived from the constitution to be approved by the public.
- Respect the sovereignty of the people, obey the people’s decisions, fulfill their demands, and work to implement it
- Establish a Developmental Federal Democratic Government that strives for the progress and the development of the people.
- Remove the totalitarian PFDJ regime and its oppressive institutions
- Abolish all PFDJ declarations and institutions of oppression
- Separation of state power from religion and non-interference of government in the affairs of religion and vice-versa
- Establish federal democratic system that based on the decisions and will of the people.
- Ensure an active and direct participation of the people of Eritrea
- Accept that the people are the sources and owners of all political power
- Secure the rights to self-determination of Eritrean nationalities
Respect the Human Rights of Citizens
- Respect all human rights and civil liberties stated in international charters.
- Ensure that no citizen is put under arrest and his/her property inspected without a warrant from the court.
- Uphold the right of any prisoner to defend themselves with or without a lawyer.
- Avoid the use of inhuman methods of interrogation of prisoners.
Respect the Rights of Religious Groups and Faiths
- Ensure the equality and freedom of all religions and traditional beliefs, and avoid discrimination.
- Any citizen can believe and practice his/her belief without any pressure.
- Religion should be separated from the government and academic institutions and neither should impose its influences over the other.
- Different religions can have their own institutions to teach their practices in such a way that it does not conflict with the constitution.
Secure the Democratic Rights of Citizens
- Under the aegis of the constitution, peaceful activities of opposition groups will be allowed; the campaigns between the political organizations and parties can be conducted under the umbrella of free, peaceful and democratic principles.
- Eritrean citizens will have the right to express their opinions verbally or in writing, as well as enjoy the right of assembly and freedom of movement as stated the constitution.
- In the race for political power, we will abide by the people’s decisions.
- The succession of political power should be in a peaceful and legal manner.
- In compliance with the constitution, the rights of citizens to support or oppose the government, to elect and be elected should be respected.
Uphold Gender Rights and Equality
- Stand against any form of gender discrimination
- Ensure gender equality in social, economic, and political affairs.
- There should be equal pay for equal work between men and women; women should not be assigned to jobs hazardous to their health, and maternity leave and pay should be protected by law.
- Focus on efforts to raise the political consciousness and their role in different aspects of political life.
- Encourage women to organize themselves and stand up for their rights.
- Eradicate oppressive traditional practices and regressive cultural beliefs.
Safeguard the Rights of Eritrean Nationalities
- Eritrean nationalities should have unrestricted rights to decide their future, to self-govern and to have a decentralized federal democratic system.
- Work so that the Eritrean nationalities, of their own free will, develop mutual trust and respect to maintain a strong sense of national unity.
- Ensure proportionate and fair participation of all nationalities in government institutions and national administration. Also ensure that they are the prime beneficiaries of wealth and resources of their local areas.
- Ensure the ethnic groups of Eritrea have the right to develop their own cultures, languages and history. Make certain that all Eritrean languages are equal and Tigrigna and Arabic are government official languages.
- Give special focus to narrow the gap in development among different ethnic groups that has been worsening under the totalitarian regime.
The Defense Forces
- The defense forces of Eritrea will be under civilian administration.
- Abolish the repressive and tyrannical military institutions of the regime, and replace them with a professional military whose members join voluntarily. All of the Eritrean nationalities should be represented there.
- As an institution, the Eritrean defense forces should be non-partisan and free from any political party control. Individually, members of the defense forces, will have the right to vote. Any member of the defense forces who wishes to compete for political power should resign from the defense forces.
- Except the few who were in the decision making positions of the totalitarian regime, the rest of the oppressed members of the army can continue to be members of the defense force if they wish.
- The core task of the defense forces of Eritrea is to protect and defend the constitution, the sovereignty of Eritrea, the people and the property of citizens
General Economic Principles and Policies
- The people’s democratic government, taking into considering the needs of the people, will advance developmental economic policy by coordinating and incorporating all stakeholders.
- Develop economic policy that gives priority to private investment by citizens, and also encourages foreign investment.
- Develop economic policy that balances disproportionate regional development and that advances social justice.
- Properties and cash held by PFDJ will be confiscated and used for the benefit of the people and the nation.
- Assets in cash and properties that have been illegally acquired from individuals by PFDJ officials and their supporters. These assets should be returned to their legitimate owners through legal process.
- Follow a resettlement program that does not violate the rights of indigenous people, interrupt the economic progress of law-abiding residents, and improves the spirit of peaceful coexistence.
The Land Ownership
- Land ownership is that of the people. To ensure the continuity and growth of the people, land will not be sold or exchanged. The government will have stewardship of land administration to safeguard the growth and continuity of the people.
- Respect people’s rights to lease out their land and benefit economically.
- When the government takes land from indigenous people for development, the government will have the responsibility to provide the owners with alternative land and/or compensate them fairly.
- All the land owned by the regime will be confiscated and used for the benefit of the people and the nation.
- Land taken from people illegally should be returned to the legitimate owners or compensation will be given as deemed appropriate through legal processes.
- The land issue is very sensitive and a body that studies it, in depth, and researches land issues needs to be established.
Housing and Land in the City
- Considering the shortage of land in the cities, modern housing developments, should be increased to minimize housing shortages while maintaining public interest as the core priority.
- Encourage local and foreign investors to invest in the planning and development of modern cities.
- The government has the obligation to provide an alternative or appropriate compensation when indigenous people or legal residents are displaced for investment or for the expansion and development of cities.
- Develop a policy that introduces modern agriculture and enhances productivity and food security.
- Focus on rural development and boost land productivity and minimize land erosion.
- Follow a policy that assists Eritrean nomads in changing their traditional lifestyle, getting them settled in areas of their choice, and introduced to agriculture.
- Preserve and enhance natural woodlands, protect and preserve wildlife.
- Make efforts to transform the traditional animal husbandry to a modern system.
- Animal resources and agricultural production should primarily be directed to improve people’s living standards and should also target export.
- Encourage local and foreign investors to invest in agriculture.
- Marine resources are the owned by the general public and the government.
- Develop a policy that protects the marine resources from pollution.
- Make every effort to make marine resources play a vital role in the economic development of the nation.
- Make every effort to make marine resources play a key role in the tourism industry
- Seaports and harbors of Eritrea are used to benefit of Eritrea and its people.
- Protect the rights of those who use traditional fishing methods and make efforts to modernize their practices.
- Encourage local and foreign investors to invest in this sector of the economy.
- The import and export trade is mainly targeted to fulfilling the basic needs of the people and stabilize the market.
- Adopt export oriented trade policy. The trading policy should be designed in such a way that improve the domestic market and expands trade with neighboring countries.
- To develop trade activities, improve infrastructure of land, sea and air transportation.
- Develop a policy that encourages local and foreign investors.
- To avoid the damaging effect of contraband in the national trade economy, tight controls and legal actions will be taken.
- Despite all constraints, every effort is exerted to make use of handcrafts until it naturally ceases to exist and is upgraded to modern industry.
- Considering the benefit of handcrafts to the rural population in general, and the city dwellers in particular, necessary assistance and incentives will be provided for improvement.
- Work to abolish the archaic social beliefs about artisans who create handcrafts.
- Design a policy so that manufacturing industry and agriculture complement each other.
- Expand industry based on agricultural products.
- Make necessary investments that will promote the use of mineral resources in manufacturing industry.
- Create a conducive environment for local and foreign investors to invest in the industrial sector
- Only citizens will be permitted to establish financial institutions. We should make every effort to improve and modern these institutions.
- The government will put in place financial policies and control systems to facilitate economic development of the nation and secure the interests of the people.
- Make every effort to expand efficient financial services in Eritrea.
- Expand banks and financial institutions in order to strengthen the financial capacity of the nation.
- The people of Eritrea and the government own the natural mineral resources.
- The mining resources should be explored to speed up the development of the nation. Mining resources are to be explored and studied in depth.
- Enhance national development, and secure the interests of the public, the government can invest in mining activities either with or without other investors—be they citizens or foreigners.
- Develop local tourism, and encourage citizens to learn about the historical resources of Eritrea.
- Preserve the nation’s archeological artifacts and historical buildings, make use of them as tourist attractions, and make every effort to register them with UNESCO.
- Our spectacular unexplored coastlines should be made an attraction for tourism.
- Publicize tourist attractions abroad.
- Encourage local and foreign investment in tourism in such a way that does not conflict with the culture and tradition of our people.
- Every citizen has the right to employment. All who are able to work have the right to seek employment without any discrimination. Every effort will be made for citizens to be more productive and to minimize unemployment.
- Build recreation and sport centers, as well as libraries to develop young people, both mentally and physically.
- Encourage the establishment of civic societies that advocate for the interests of the people.
- Minimum wage, worker’s rights, working hours, and annual leave will be enforced by law. Laws that advocate for worker’s rights, labor unions, and non-governmental civic societies will be established. Pension and compensation rights will also be protected by law.
- Maternal and children’s rights shall be protected. Priority will be given to the expansion of kindergarten and primary education.
- Underage children will be prohibited, by law, from working in dangerous and exploitative working conditions.
- An institution should be established to support martyrs’ families, veterans of the war for independence, disabled citizens, and others who need social welfare. Accommodations will be made to assist people with disabilities to join the work force and to provide them with training and assistance that can lead to employment.
- Fight to abolish the immoral activities and culture fostered during PFDJ rule.
- Give special attention to the Eritrean refugees, and facilitate their voluntary return and resettlement in the country.
- Education services will be centered on the people’s needs, and tailored to feed the economy of the country; it will be free from dependency and aid.
- Nationwide literacy campaign will be carried out to abolish illiteracy.
- Ensure that primary education is compulsory, and secondary education will also be given free to all citizens. The cost for higher education will depend on the availability of public funds.
- The national system of education should be free from religious influence. Religious institutions will also have the right to teach religious studies without government intervention.
- Introduce and develop science and technology in ways that benefit the people.
- All sections of the society will have equal access to education. Special consideration will be given to groups that have been marginalized by previous regimes.
- Under the auspices and guidelines of the national system of education, local and foreign nationals will be encouraged to invest in the growth and development of the educational sector.
- Government will invest on research and development.
- Develop a health policy that focuses, primarily, on the control and prevention of diseases
- Healthcare is a basic right of citizens, and all citizens should have access to free healthcare services
- Provide efficient public health services. Special consideration will be given to communities that have not received adequate healthcare under previous regimes.
- Foster awareness and participation of the public. Expand HIV/AIDS control and eradication centers.
- Abolish harmful traditional practices, and improve traditional/alternative medicine, scientifically, through education and training.
- Endeavors to expand access to education and clean water in the rural areas will be accelerated
- Eritrean culture is the sum total of the cultural values of all ethnic groups. Citizens will be encouraged to understand and get familiarized with all of them.
- Keeping in mind mutual tolerance, efforts will be made so that democratic values and traditions flourish. Preserve, enhance and advance our progressive traditions. The contents of this document are not to be changed, deleted, improved, or modified before the third organizational congress.
- Develop and encourage a culture of cooperation that strengthens the mutually agreed upon unification of the people.
- Foster the study of literature, theater, music, painting, and other fine arts. Artistic expression can play a significant role in bringing about social change.
- Address traditional beliefs that are an impediment to change and good work ethics.
- Advance a policy that respects the political independence and sovereignty of our people; it should be based on fraternity, good neighborliness, non-interference in internal affairs, and the resolution of conflicts/differences in a civilized manner as reflected by international law.
- Eritrea will have an active role in economic and social cooperation with neighboring countries in accordance with international economic laws.
- Improve the relations between Eritrea and its neighboring countries, which would then allow for free movement of citizens, capital, commodities and services.
Second Organizational Congress
Eritrean Unity for Democratic Change (EUDC)
10 February 2015